Please follow these tips to prepare your website for localization.
1. Encode and serve your pages as Unicode
If you are planning on localizing your site into different languages than the best encoding you should choose for your web pages is Unicode. Unicode is a kind of numeric presentation of characters that is two bytes and so can contain up to 65535 characters to show. There are no currently spoken languages that have more than 65,535 characters, so by using Unicode as your codepage you should not run into problems with characters not displaying. To represent your web page as a Unicode page, specify the character set as UTF-8 rather than the default encoding, add the line of code below in the head part of your page:
Another benefit of using Unicode to build your pages is that it uniquely allows you to display multiple character sets on the one page. This is distinct benefit for pages where you wish to display more than one language e.g. introductory splash pages, language content lists etc. You will also need to ensure your web server is setup to send the page as Unicode to the browser. If you are using the Apache web server you can do this by editing the .htaccess file and making sure that the AddDefaultCharset Directive is set as:
2. Use styles rather than tags and use Unicode font faces in your css
Using styles rather than embedding tags in your pages makes it easier for you to adjust text size for some languages site wide at a later stage. When you are creating your web pages in a language other than English, you are limited in using font faces. There are a few font faces in Windows that are installed automatically and can show multilingual characters. If you would like your visitors to view your pages correctly without any need to install fonts, you will need to use these multilingual fonts. The most common Unicode font face choices include Arial, Verdana, Times New Roman & Tahoma.
3. Consider authoring your documents in an XML language, for separation of style and content
XHTML and XML + XSLT allow your content source files to be translated efficiently. XML document types have widespread support in a number of translation memory applications, meaning that translators can work directly with your source files, reducing the time spent on formatting.
4. Consider a liquid flow of text to allow for differences in word length
German text on average uses 1/3rd more characters per words than English and Asian languages often take up much less character space than English words. Your design interface, layout and navigation must make considerations for these differences. Consider using CSS positioning for text elements or use flexible relative table widths where the cells expand or contract depending on character layout. Anyway, we can also adapt your layout to fit the new language content or create a similar layout that best fits the new content.
5. Navigation considerations
Some languages force you to apply some changes in the design and navigation of your website. For example, if you have a vertical menu bar, you may put it on the left of your pages for the English version pages and on the right for Arabic pages because Arabic is a RTL (right to left) language and people are used to start reading pages from right to left. However this is not a rule, but it is better to consider it in designing pages.
6. Use text instead of graphics where possible
Graphics or images containing text, will take longer to localize and are not as easy to translate as HTML text. Thus it is recommended to consider replacing text in a graphic with HTML text where possible; this will also help your visibility on search engines because search engines cannot read graphics. Often the formatting graphical text in Asian languages (double-byte character sets) may require special computing tools which can add to your cost & time resources. It is much easier to use text and encode your pages in Unicode. However, we all know that design and an appealing website is very important to attract visitors. So, if you cannot help using graphic elements for text, we can assist you with the editing needed to accommodate the new text content.
7. Don’t embed data and avoid use of CDATA sections